Bam Citadel, Bam
To the north east of the Bam city, in the skirts of a gigantic rock is the foundations of a fortified castle, reputedly known as the Bam Citadel. This citadel was actually the old city of Bam. The city comprised of four sections and 38 watch towers. In the southern side of this structure there were four ramparts and to the north-eastern section there was also another colossal rampart. The citadel has been constructed of sun baked bricks, argyle and straw, but in some parts stone, brick and the barks of date palms have been utilized. The said citadel comprises of the entrance gate-way, a public sector, a military base and the central section or seat of power. The public dwellings were constructed alongside the elevated areas and on the ground level. Regarding the city construction planning its a complete aggregate. Its distinguished areas are the main passage or bazaar, Hosseiniyeh (or place for public religious rituals and mourning), mosque (fire-temple), gymnasium for traditional sports, public bath and a religious sector pertaining to the Jews. Most of the common houses were constructed in such a manner that they were connected to each other and usually had interconnections. In some houses, private baths are seen. A few of these buildings are two storeyed structures which were most probabely constructed due to increased population. After the gateway entrance there is a main passage which leads to the second gate-way. A part of this route was the city bazaar. Remenance of a bakery, an oil extraction area and the mud made shelves of bazaar reveals the splendour of the city in that time. Running parallel to the main passage there were two other paths leading to the second gateway. The Hosseiniyeh or place for religious mourning comprised of a large area with a two storeyed symmetrical porch, a few chambers and three pulpits of sun baked bricks. The traditional gymnasium consisted of four porches, a dome and a low-lying area, surrounded by a higher platform. The Bam citadel has two mosques, one is the Jame' Mosque and the other the Hazrat Mohammad (AS) Mosque. There was also used to be a public bath in public section, which is unfortunately in a ruined state at present. After the second gate-way are the stables, rampart and the sentry picket. The third gate-way led to the garrison, the commanders residence and a wind mill. In the midst of the citadel, a three storyed edifice remains which was used to be the seat of the ruling power. Alongside this structure was a private bath of the commander, and a drainage conduit. This citadel was constructed by Bahman Esfandiyar, and dates back to the pre-Islamic period. The Bam Citadel has undergone several repairs.Unfortunatly Bam Castle had been ruined in an earthquake in Dec.2003. But it is going to reconstruction by people, Government and International Organizations.