Geographical Position, Hamadan
The province of Hamadan covers an area of 19,368 sq. km. and is located to the west of Iran. Asad Abad, Towiserkan, Bahar, Razan, Kabudrahang, Malayer, Nahavand and Hamadan are the townships of this province. In the year 2006, Hamadan province had a population of approximately 1.7 million, of which about 42.34 % resided in urban areas, and about 57.58% in the rural areas. The province lies in an elevated region, with the 'Alvand' mountains, running from the north west to the south west. This mountainous area is to the south west and east of the Hamadan city. To the east of Hamadan, and east of the heights of Alvand, that is in between the mountains of 'Alvand' and 'Gerou' or (Gerin), in the south, are the plains.
Hamadan province lies in a temperate mountainous region to the east of Zagross. The vast plains of the north and northeast of the province are influenced by strong winds, that almost last throughout the year. The various air currents of this region are: the north and north west winds of the spring and winter seasons, which are usually humid and bring about rainfall. The west-east air currents that blow in the autumn, and the local winds that develop due to difference in air-pressure between the elevated areas and the plains, like the blind wind of the Asad Abad region. Taking into consideration the environmental conditions, the ideal period to travel to this province is from mid May to mid October, which proves to be excellent as regards sunshine and temperature, besides the natural surroundings. The higher regions of the province experience a cold, mountainous climate in general, whilst the regions to the south of which, have a temperate, mountainous climate.
History and Culture, Hamadan
Hamadan province can be said to be one of the historical and extremely ancient parts of Iran and its civilization. Relics of this area confirm this fact. Hamadan township being in the vicinity of the Alvand mountains has a cold, mountainous climate, with snowy winters and short mild summers. The city of Hamadan is the center of the province and is at a distance of 337 km. from Tehran. The structures of city is related to 'Diya Aku' one of the monarchs of the Medes, about (700 BC.). According to the records of a reputed Greek historian, this territory was called 'Ekbatan' and 'Hegmataneh' by this monarch . Thus being transformed into a huge capital, which was later repaired by Darius The Great. During the Parthian era, 'Teesfoon was the capital of the country, and Hamadan the summer capital and residence of the Parthian rulers. After the Parthians, the Sassanids constructed their summer palaces in Hamadan. In the year 23 AH. when the war of Nahavand took place and Hamadan came into the hands of the Arabs, at times it thrived and at times witnessed poverty. In the times of the Deylamites (319 AH.) , it suffered plenty of damages. In the 6th century AH., the Seleucidians shifted their capital from Baqdad to Hamadan. The city of Hamadan which was always assaulted by the rise and fall of powers, was completely destroyed during the Teimooride invasion. During the Safavid era the city thrived. Thereafter, in the year 1138 AH., Hamadan surrendered to the Ottomans, but due to the courage and chivalry of Nader Shah Afshar, Hamadan was cleared off the invaders and according to the peace treaty between Iran and the Ottomans , it was returned to Iran. The city of Hamadan lay on the 'Silk Road' and even in the last centuries enjoyed good prospects in commerce and trade being on the main road network in the western region of the country.